If you are a fan of fantasy series or movies like Harry Potter, Pirates of the Caribbean, images like boats and cars floating in the air are not too strange.
It seems that these images are only in fantasy movies, in fact, from a scientific perspective, seeing these images in real life is said to be an illusion phenomenon.
Accordingly, a mirage is a phenomenon that can deceive our eyes because it is exactly like the real picture when we are in a special environment. Here are the most common visual illusions in the world.
1. Fata Morgana
For sailors, Fata Morgana was a transcendental mirage no one wanted to see on their voyages across the seas. Accordingly, this mirage often appears on the horizon over the oceans and seas, especially in the polar regions. It makes distant objects, such as another ship, appear to be floating in the sky.
Typically, Fatas Morganas will appear when light is refracted (or “bent”) by the air temperature in contrast to the sea surface temperature. However, this phenomenon also occurs in lakes or deserts, not only in oceans.
2. The Phantom of Brocken
Named after the summit of Mount Harz in Germany, this mirage phenomenon was first discovered by mountaineers. Reportedly, these people have noticed ghostly figures that seem to be looking at them through the clouds above. The head of the “ghost” is often surrounded by rings of colored light similar to halos forming a brilliant halo.
In fact, these are just shadows of themselves when the light is diffracted similar to the case of a rainbow when sunlight shines through tiny water droplets in the air.
3. Fake Sun
Another name for this phenomenon is Sundog (sun dog) with bright spots appearing on either side of the real sun. In many cases, they also form an arc-shaped halo.
It is known that this phenomenon occurs when sunlight is refracted by ice crystals in the air. False suns usually appear at sunrise or sunset and can be seen anywhere in the world, at any time of the year. The reason it got the name Sundog is because they always follow the sun like a dog follows its owner.
4. Oasis in the desert
This phenomenon is probably not too strange for the followers of Hollywood movies. This is a phenomenon in the desert that appears an oasis with lakes, trees and cool air amid harsh daytime weather.
However, as we approached, there weren’t any cool oases. It is known that this is a phenomenon that occurs when light is bent when traveling through a region of warm air and has a lower density.
In the desert, the hottest air is near the sandy surface and cools as you climb. So when light is refracted downwards, it causes our eyes to see blue below the horizon.
5. City on the sea
The sea city illusion is a unique phenomenon that has been recorded since 1840 when it was discovered by a resident of a small island in England. Accordingly, this illusion will show the virtual image of a large city with many high-rise buildings suddenly appearing in the mist, surprising many people.
However, like other phenomena, this is only a phenomenon when light rays are reflected by objects, constantly changing direction and reaching our eyes.
Source: Science Direct