The average sea depth globally is 3,700 meters. So what’s in the deep sea? What kind of mysterious world is that?
According to modern scientists, man’s understanding of the deep sea in the last century was not even as much as our understanding of the Solar System! Then, with the popularity of manned deep-sea submersibles and unmanned submersibles, humans were able to explore some of the depths of the seabed.
Currently, there are only a few countries in the world that can independently develop manned deep submersibles at a depth of 10,000 meters, such as China and the United States.
The pressure in the deep sea is hundreds of times higher than the atmospheric pressure on the surface, to combat such high pressure, a deep-sea submersible must have strong resistance to extreme pressure, if it is a manned deep-dive vessel, it is also need to ensure the safety and comfort of the people inside it.
The human-explored deep-sea area currently accounts for only a very small part of the total ocean area. The average depth of the global ocean is about 3,700 meters, while oceans cover 70% of the Earth’s surface area. Therefore, there are still many secrets hidden in the ocean that perhaps take a lot of time to discover.
Deep sea refers to the deepest area of the ocean, usually the area where the ocean floor is deeper than 200 meters. Due to the special environment of the deep sea, light, pressure, temperature and other factors are very different from the land and shallow sea, so the creatures and landscapes of the deep sea are also completely different from what we usually see. see.
The following are the main ecological and environmental features of the deep sea:
Deep sea environment: Its temperature and water pressure are extremely large, can reach hundreds of atm, dim light, there are geological phenomena such as deep cold sea currents, underground volcanoes and hot springs.
Deep sea fish: Deep sea fish are many and diverse, many fishes look very fancy, in addition to their large mouths and impaired eyes, they often emit light, to attract prey or find friends. love. Compared with shallow sea fish, deep sea fish have less bone and muscle content, the proportion of cartilage in bone of deep sea fish is much higher than that of shallow sea fish.
Abyssal fauna: Abysmal animals come in many different forms, some pretty and some odd looking, and these benthic animals also play an important role in marine ecosystems deep.
Abyssal sludge: Organic matter in abyssal mud is special because at low pressure and temperature large amounts of marine organic matter can be deposited on the ocean floor.
Deep-sea hydrothermal organisms: Deep-sea hydrothermal organisms refer to organisms that live near hot springs in the deep sea. The temperature at the center of the hot water pit reached several hundred degrees Celsius. It is hard to imagine that there would be a large number of bacteria living in this harsh environment, one of which feeds on sulfide spewed from the pit. hot water, water hole and absorb energy from it.
Deep seabed terrain: The terrain of the deep seabed is often relatively complex and rough, and there are many deep-sea faults, reefs, trenches…
So why is the deep sea still a mystery to mankind?
Exploring the deep sea is not an easy job, which requires a lot of skills, equipment and specialized knowledge. There are many reasons that make it difficult for humans to access the mysteries of the seabed, including the following 3 main reasons:
First, the deep sea is an extremely harsh environment, with very low temperatures, very high pressures, and lack of light. These factors make it difficult for people to be safe here without the help of protective equipment and respiratory support. In addition, there are many toxic gases and radioactive substances in the deep sea that are dangerous to human health.
Second, the deep sea is a vast and complex environment, with a wide variety of topography, geology, and biota. To explore the deep sea, scientists have to use a variety of techniques and technologies, such as submarines, remote observation devices, unmanned devices or underwater robots. However, these tools are still limited in their ability to move and transmit signals, and in fact they are still only able to withstand pressure at a certain depth.
Third, the deep sea is a poorly studied and understood environment, full of mysteries and challenges. According to estimates, only about 5% of the seabed has been explored and mapped in detail. Up to two-thirds of the life on the seafloor has yet to be officially identified. Many natural phenomena and processes in the deep sea are also not clearly explained.
These reasons have explained why humans rarely explore the deep sea. However, this does not mean that people do not care about the deep sea or ignore its values and potentials. In contrast, the deep sea is a valuable resource, a focal point for tourism and education, and an important factor in regulating the climate and sustaining life on Earth. Therefore, deep sea exploration is a necessary and meaningful task for humans in the future.
Source: Earthlymission; Nature; NASA